Moving bed reactors are catalytic reactors in which the catalyst moves through the reactor along with the reactants. They are open systems and operate at steady state.

The animation below shows the operation of a moving-bed reactor. Reactants (green) and catalyst (white) enter the top of the reactor and move through the vessel. Once at the bottom the catalyst (black) is removed and regenerated; products (blue) are removed from the reaction system and the catalyst is regenerated and brought to the top of the reactor.


This animation shows the basic operation within a moving bed reactor. Solid catalyst pellets are continuously introduced at the top of the reactor, as are the fluid phase reactants. The catalyst and the fluid flow together down the reactor. The reaction takes place along the way, which establishes a concentration gradient.



  • Easy to regenerate catalyst
  • Have plug flow characteristics
  • Low catalyst handling cost
  • High conversion rate
  • Good selectivity
  • Flow of solids not easy to maintain
  • Poor heat transfer characteristics
  • Fluid reactant may bypass catalyst bed
  • Solid distribution difficult to maintain
  • Stagnation may occur
  • Attrition, break-up of catalyst pellets due to impact against reactor walls, may occur


Fogler, Scott H. Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:      Prentice-Hall, 1998. Print.
Hill, Charles G., Jr. An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Reactor Design.      New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1977. Print.
Perry, Robert H., and Don W. Green. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. 7th ed. New      York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1997. Print.
Trambouze, Pierre, Van Landeghem, Hugo, and Wauquier, Jean-Pierre. Chemical Reactors.      Houston: Gulf Publishing Company, 1988. Print.
Walas, Stanley M. Reaction Kinetics for Chemical Engineers. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.,      1959. Print.


Sam Catalano
Alex Wozniak

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