Conveyors and elevators are used to transport solids. An industrial plant typically contains more than one type of conveyor or elevator.
Valves regulate the flow of fluids and isolate piping or equipment for maintenance without interrupting the other connected units. They are typically controlled with actuators; use of manual valves may create safety problems in emergency situations. The valves below are categorized according to the system used by Valve Manufacturers Association of America. They categorize valves into four main types: Linear motion valves, Rotary valves, Self-actuated valves, and Specialty valves
Depending upon the pressure range, vacuum pumps can be separated into two general categories: rough-medium vacuum, ranging from 760 to 10 -3 torr (1 to 1.3 x 10 -6 atm) and high-ultrahigh vacuum, ranging from 10 -3 to below 10 -7 torr (1.3 x 10 -6 to below 1.3 x 10 -10 atm).
Today turbines are widely used because they create mechanical drive and generate power simultaneously. Turbines work by converting the kinetic and thermal energy of a moving fluid, usually gas, water, air or steam, into mechanical energy.
Tanks serve many purposes in industry. This page describes three types of tanks, such as the storage tanks shown here.
By not letting steam escape, heated systems can more efficiently maintain correct process temperatures. Steam traps are automatic valves that sense the difference between steam, air, condensate, and noncondensable gases such as CO2.
Thickeners and clarifiers are both used to separate liquids and solids by settling. Thickeners are used to concentrate solids, while clarifiers are used to purify liquids.
The main functions of seals are to contain pressure, maintain vacuums, and control unwanted particles from collecting in machinery.
Screening or sieving is a method of separating granular solids according to size. Screens are widely used in nearly every process that handles particulate materials.
Mist eliminators separate mist from a gas stream to recover valuable products, improve emissions, protect downstream equipment, and improve product purity.