Valves regulate the flow of fluids and isolate piping or equipment for maintenance without interrupting the other connected units. They are typically controlled with actuators; use of manual valves may create safety problems in emergency situations. The valves below are categorized according to the system used by Valve Manufacturers Association of America. They categorize valves into four main types: Linear motion valves, Rotary valves, Self-actuated valves, and Specialty valves

Vacuum Pumps

Depending upon the pressure range, vacuum pumps can be separated into two general categories: rough-medium vacuum, ranging from 760 to 10 -3 torr (1 to 1.3 x 10 -6 atm) and high-ultrahigh vacuum, ranging from 10 -3 to below 10 -7 torr (1.3 x 10 -6 to below 1.3 x 10 -10 atm).


Today turbines are widely used because they create mechanical drive and generate power simultaneously. Turbines work by converting the kinetic and thermal energy of a moving fluid, usually gas, water, air or steam, into mechanical energy.

Steam Traps

Inverted bucket steam trap
By not letting steam escape, heated systems can more efficiently maintain correct process temperatures. Steam traps are automatic valves that sense the difference between steam, air, condensate, and noncondensable gases such as CO2.


flat, gyratory screener
Screening or sieving is a method of separating granular solids according to size. Screens are widely used in nearly every process that handles particulate materials.