Valves regulate the flow of fluids and isolate piping or equipment for maintenance without interrupting the other connected units. They are typically controlled with actuators; use of manual valves may create safety problems in emergency situations. The valves below are categorized according to the system used by Valve Manufacturers Association of America. They categorize valves into four main types: Linear motion valves, Rotary valves, Self-actuated valves, and Specialty valves

Vacuum Pumps

Depending upon the pressure range, vacuum pumps can be separated into two general categories: rough-medium vacuum, ranging from 760 to 10 -3 torr (1 to 1.3 x 10 -6 atm) and high-ultrahigh vacuum, ranging from 10 -3 to below 10 -7 torr (1.3 x 10 -6 to below 1.3 x 10 -10 atm).


Today turbines are widely used because they create mechanical drive and generate power simultaneously. Turbines work by converting the kinetic and thermal energy of a moving fluid, usually gas, water, air or steam, into mechanical energy.


Pumps are used to transfer energy to an incoming fluid. The pressure or velocity of the fluid increases, which helps the fluid overcome physical barriers such as pipe friction and height changes. Pumps exist in a variety of shapes and sizes, depending on their intended function. When the flowing fluid is a gas, the pump is typically referred to as a compressor.


Pipe systems are an essential part of almost all industrial processes. Fittings allow pipe systems to be configured in different shapes. Several types of joints are used to connect pipes and fittings. Pipes and similarly hose, tubing, and ducting exist in a variety of sizes and materials.