Packed bed reactors, also known as fixed bed reactors, are often used for catalytic processes. Pictured below is a fixed bed reactor used in a synthetic process. Pictured below is a packed bed reactor used in the NASA Glenn Research Center.
Many organic compounds are combusted into carbon dioxide and water in oxidizers. Combustion is an exothermic oxidation reaction that destroys VOCs before emission.
Nuclear reactors produce power through fission. In the United States, nuclear power plants use either pressurized water reactors or boiling water reactors.
Moving bed reactors are reactors in which the catalytic material flows along with the reactants and is then separated from the exit stream and recycled.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactors are used in applications that involve the deposition of a layer or layers of a substance onto a surface. The figure below is a 3000x magnification of a cubic diamond coated tool.
Fixed film reactors are used to treat organic hazardous, non-hazardous, and toxic wastes. Hazardous materials in untreated water can be degraded to less dangerous compounds using biological agents such as microorganisms or their products.
Semi-batch reactors lie between batch and continuous reactors in terms of operation. Pictured below is a vertical reactor that can be configured to operate in semi-batch mode.
Trickle bed reactors are solid-liquid-gas contacting devices wherein a liquid stream flows downward over a bed of catalyst with pressure difference serving as the driving force . The fluid flows over catalyst particles and forms fine films, rivulets or droplets. The gas stream can either flow concurrent with the liquid or countercurrent to it through the bed. Trickle bed reactors are primarily operated in continuous mode but are sometimes used in semi-batch processes.