Condensers make use of a condensing medium, such as air or water, that absorbs heat from a vapor. As the vapor loses its heat to the condensing medium, its temperature falls to the saturation point, and it condenses to a liquid.


The earliest chimneys began to emerge at the start of the industrial revolution. They were built of cut stone and had extremely thick walls. The first concrete chimney, made of sand mortar and cement, was built in 1873, near Sunderland, England. It was 62 feet tall and had no internal lining to protect the concrete.