Solar thermal energy, commonly referred to as concentrated solar power (CSP), is generated through the use of collectors.
Solar cells are multiple panel-conductor-electrode systems which, when joined with several others, can generate a tangible and significant amount of electrical current.
Common refrigeration equipment decreases the temperature of a fluid to create a cool environment within which materials can be refrigerated or frozen.
Heat exchangers take the energy from a hot stream and use it to heat a cooler stream.
Furnaces and kilns are very similar in design and are closely related to dryers. The major difference is that dryers only have an outer metal shell, whereas furnaces and kilns have refractory bricks for insulation.
Flare systems are used to destroy corrosive, toxic, and flammable waste products during process start-ups or during upset plant conditions.
Cryogenics is the cooling of materials to extremely low temperatures using highly condensed gases.
Cooling towers remove heat from a warm liquid by contacting it with a cool, dry gas.
Condensers make use of a condensing medium, such as air or water, that absorbs heat from a vapor. As the vapor loses its heat to the condensing medium, its temperature falls to the saturation point, and it condenses to a liquid.
The earliest chimneys began to emerge at the start of the industrial revolution. They were built of cut stone and had extremely thick walls. The first concrete chimney, made of sand mortar and cement, was built in 1873, near Sunderland, England. It was 62 feet tall and had no internal lining to protect the concrete.