1 – Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API)
Pharmaceutical processes start with the production of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). This consists of feed handling, reactions, recovery, and drying. After these steps, a pure API is ready to be used in pharmaceutical products to deliver medicine to the body. The following sections describe these steps and equipment relevant to API production.
2 – Capsules
Capsules use a gelatin barrier to deliver the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and additional inactive ingredients to the body.
2 – Injectables
Injectables are sterile liquid drug products that are injected into the bloodstream.
2 – Semi-Solids
Semi-solid pharmaceuticals can be divided into creams, gels, and ointments.
2 – Sprays
Pharmaceutical sprays are medicines that are administered orally or nasally through respiration.
2 – Syrups
The overall processes to develop the three types of syrups, namely solutions, suspensions, and emulsions, are quite similar, so the general process will be described below, and differences pointed out as needed.
2 – Tablets
Tablets are pharmaceutical products made from compressed solids. Tablets are delivered to the body through ingestion.
3 – Pharmaceutical Quality Control
All pharmaceutical products must undergo quality control (QC) to ensure that the delivered product is up to the required specifications.