Pumps are used to transfer energy to an incoming fluid. The pressure or velocity of the fluid increases, which helps the fluid overcome physical barriers such as pipe friction and height changes. Pumps exist in a variety of shapes and sizes, depending on their intended function. When the flowing fluid is a gas, the pump is typically referred to as a compressor.


Pipe systems are an essential part of almost all industrial processes. Fittings allow pipe systems to be configured in different shapes. Several types of joints are used to connect pipes and fittings. Pipes and similarly hose, tubing, and ducting exist in a variety of sizes and materials.


Fans are used to transport gases under low pressures (less than 0.5 psi). Fans can be separated into two major categories: centrifugal and axial flow. Air is discharged radially from centrifugal fans and axially from axial-flow fans.